Devices prior to the iPhone 5 use a pin USB dock connector, whereas the newer iPhones use an eight-pin lightning connector. Certain models enforce full disk encryption, while older models do not. Encrypted devices require additional steps during acquisition if access is even possible. The examiner must be prepared for all hurdles they may be required to clear during the acquisition and analytical stages of the investigation. In addition, knowing the capabilities that iPhone has and the initial and current OS version makes a difference is the data you will be able to recover from the device.
Apple is not consistent with data storage locations across iOS versions. Thus, the examiner must know the original version installed when the phone was first in use to ensure that the forensic tools do not overlook data that could aid in the investigation. Due to the complexities of the iPhone, the list of hardware components is extensive and each device should be researched for internal components.
The following images show the internals of iPhone 6. The images were taken after dismantling the iPhone 6.
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Similarly, the iPad, a version of the tablet computer introduced in January , squashed the sales of notebooks. With the iPad, individuals can shoot videos, take photos, play music, read books, browse the Internet, and do much more. Various iPad models exist now with different features and storage capabilities.
The following table lists all the iPad models and their initial iOS versions. In addition, Apple has changed data storage locations in iOS versions, which affects the iPad devices as well. The examiner must be aware of the different models, the released and currently installed iOS version, storage capability, network access vectors, and more. Every release of the iPad comes with improved or newly added features. Just like the iPhone, the iPad is also a collection of modules, chips, and electronic components from different manufacturers. The following images show the internals of the iPad Pro.
This smartwatch enabled users to sync iPhone data to the watch and leverage the watch as a way to interact with the iPhone and as a singular device. The Apple Watch enables users to answer calls, send and respond to SMS, iMessage, and e-mail, access third-party applications, use Apple maps, and more.
X allows the watch to function independently on Wi-Fi. The Apple Watch 2 is expected to be released in late Apple has not disclosed the complete watch specifications, which forces us to rely on the little we currently know. The following image shows the internals of the Apple Watch. Other differences will be discussed later in this chapter. In an HFS file system, the storage medium is represented as volumes.
HFS volumes are divided into logical blocks of bytes. The logical blocks are numbered from first to last on a given volume and will remain static with the same size as physical blocks, that is, bytes. These logical blocks are grouped together into allocation blocks, which are used by the HFS file system to track data in a more efficient way. HFS uses a bit value to address allocation blocks, which limits the number of allocation blocks to 65, The HFS Plus file system was designed to support larger file sizes. HFS volumes are divided into sectors that are usually bytes in size. These sectors are grouped together into allocation blocks.
The number of allocation blocks depends on the total size of the volume. HFS Plus uses block addresses of 32 bits to address allocation blocks. HFS Plus uses journaling by default. Journaling is the process of logging every transaction to the disk, which helps in preventing file system corruption.
The key characteristics of the HFS Plus file system are: efficient use of disk space, Unicode support for filenames, support for name forks, file compression, journaling, dynamic resizing, dynamic defragmentation, and an ability to boot on operating systems other than Mac OS. These structures include a header, an alternate header, and five special files: an allocation file, an extents overflow file, a catalog file, an attributes file, and a startup file.
Among the five files, three files the extents overflow file, the catalog file, and the attribute file use a B-tree structure, a data structure that allows data to be efficiently searched, viewed, modified, or removed.
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The file format consists of one bit for every allocation block. If the bit is set, the block is in use.
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If it is not set, the block is free. Bad blocks are also recorded in the file. Disk layout By default, the file system is configured as two logical disk partitions: system root or firmware partition and user data partition. The system partition contains the OS and all of the preloaded applications used with the iPhone.
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The system partition is mounted as read-only unless an OS upgrade is in progress or the device is jailbroken. The partition is updated only when a firmware upgrade is performed on the device. During this process, the entire partition is formatted by iTunes without affecting any of the user data. The system partition takes only a small portion of storage space, normally between 0.
As the system partition was designed to remain in factory state for the entire life of the iPhone, there is typically little useful evidentiary information that can be obtained from it. If the iOS device is jailbroken, files containing information regarding the jailbreak and user data may be resident on the system partition.
Jailbreaking an iOS device allows the user root access to the device, but voids the manufacturer warranty. Jailbreaking will be discussed later in this chapter. The user data partition contains all user-created data ranging from music and contacts to third-party application data. Most of the evidentiary information can be found in this partition. During a physical acquisition, both the user data and system partitions should be captured and saved as a.
Most Windows tools and acquisition methods will create an. Both of the output image files are supported by most commercial forensic analysis tools. It was released with the first generation of the iPhone. It utilizes a multi-touch interface where simple gestures are used to operate and control the device, such as swiping your finger across the screen to move to the successive page or pinching your fingers to zoom.
In simple terms, iOS assists with the general functioning of the device. The applications do not talk to the underlying hardware directly.
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Instead, they communicate through a well-defined system interface that protects the applications from hardware changes. This abstraction makes it easy to build applications that work on devices with different hardware capabilities.
The iOS architecture consists of four layers: the cocoa touch layer, media layer, core services layer, and core OS layer, as shown in the following figure. Each layer consists of several frameworks that help to build an application. Frameworks in this layer provide the basic application infrastructure and support key technologies, such as multitasking, touch-based input, and many high-level system services. The technologies in this layer help developers to build applications that look and sound great. All these services are not used by the developers though many parts of the system are built on top of them.
The layer contains technologies to support features such as location, iCloud, and social media.
This layer deals with low-level functionalities and provides services such as networking BSD sockets , memory management, threading POSIX threads , file system handling, external accessories access, and inter- process communication. Low-level hardware features safeguard from malware attacks, and the high-level OS features prevent unauthorized use.